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Rozwój instytucji rodziny zastępczej – rys historyczny

Fragment artykułu Marzeny Siembab, pracownika socjalnego Chrześcijańskiego Stowarzyszenia Pomocy Dzieciom „Misja Nadziei” opracowanego na podstawie książki pani Urszuli Kusio – „Rodzina zastępcza jako środowisko wychowawcze” (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie Skłodowskiej, Lublin 1998r)

O rodzinach zastępczych zaczyna być głośniej pod koniec XVI wieku, kiedy francuski duchowny św. Wincenty `a Paulo, zaniepokojony wysoką śmiertelnością niemowląt w ochronkach dla ubogich, zaczął umieszczać je u kobiet na wsi – śmiertelność znacznie spadła. W XVII wieku przybył do Warszawy francuski misjonarz Gabriel Piotr Baudouin, który założył szpitalik dla niemowląt, gdzie zatrudniał karmiące matki, dzieci nieco starsze do 7 roku życia wysyłał na wieś skąd wracały, aby rozpocząć naukę. Dom wychowawczy ks.Baudouina cieszył się poparciem królów, dygnitarzy państwowych i kościelnych a także pojedynczych filantropów. Po śmierci założyciela niestety bardzo podupadł. Na początku XX w. w wielu krajach Europy wydane zostały akty prawne regulujące problem dzieci opuszczonych. Po raz pierwszy w niepodległej Polsce problem opieki nad dzieckiem uwzględnia konstytucja z 17 marca 1921r., art.103 mówił, że dzieci nie otoczone dostateczną opieką rodzicielską, zaniedbane pod względem wychowawczym mają prawo do opieki i pomocy państwa w zakresie oznaczonym ustawą. Przewidywano również odjęcie rodzicom władzy nad dzieckiem w drodze orzeczenia sądowego. 16 sierpnia 1923r. Wprowadzono ramową ustawę o opiece społecznej, wzorowaną na podobnej ustawie niemieckiej z 1870r. Polskie ustawodawstwo lat 20 – tych XX w. nie wypowiadało się na temat rodzin zastępczych. Było jednak wiadomo, że tego typu działalność ma miejsce i podlega kompetencji samorządów terytorialnych.

W działalności rodzin zastępczych okresu międzywojennego dają się wyróżnić 3 etapy ewolucyjnych przemian tej instytucji. Etap pierwszy ( kończy się w 1926r.) to głównie negatywne rezultaty. Dzieci oddawano przede wszystkim na wieś, gdzie były wykorzystywane do ciężkiej pracy w polu. Rodzice zastępczy w większości nie dbali o zdrowie i wykształcenie swoich wychowanków. W tym czasie nie funkcjonował jeszcze system kwalifikacji dzieci i rodziców, nie stosowano również żadnego
nadzoru nad rodzinami zastępczymi.

Przełomu w kształtowaniu się instytucji ” rodziny zastępczej” dokonała Łódź. Oddawanie dzieci pod opiekę rodzinom obcym rozpoczęło się w Wydziale Opieki Społecznej Magistratu miasta Łodzi jako konieczność życiowa. Trudne położenie finansowe i brak odpowiednich lokali nie pozwalały na powiększenie liczby Miejskich Domów Wychowawczych zaś dzieci potrzebujących opieki stale przybywało. W tej sytuacji pod koniec 1925r. zdecydowano się na oddawanie dzieci osamotnionych pod opiekę rodzinom obcym. Akcja ta dotyczyła przede wszystkim porzuconych niemowląt. W lutym 1926r. na posiedzeniu magistratu Łodzi zapadła uchwała, która dokładnie określała warunki stawiane opiekunom oraz zakres i formy pomocy dla rodzin zastępczych. Osoby, które chciały podjąć się opieki nad dzieckiem powinny w myśl uchwały posiadać odpowiednie mieszkanie, jak również być zdrowe na ciele i umyśle, ale przede wszystkim z zamiłowaniem oddać się wychowaniu dziecka i otoczyć je należną opieką. Sprawą bardzo istotną było zapewnienie dzieciom z rodzin zastępczych bezpłatnej opieki lekarskiej oraz lekarstw a także leczenie w szpitalach na koszt miasta. Dzieci miały także prawo do wyjazdu na kolonie wypoczynkowe ( finansowane przez miasto). W celu zrekompensowania kosztów jakie ponosili opiekunowie wprowadzono stałe opłaty i świadczenia. Wydział Opieki Społecznej zastrzegał sobie prawo kontroli rodzin i wyciągania konsekwencji wobec niestosowania się do ustalonych przepisów ( łącznie z odebraniem dziecka). Troska władz miejskich nie zamykała się w kręgu spraw materialnych i zdrowotnych. Ważne było również wykształcenie i właściwe wychowanie dziecka. Powstała sieć poradni pedagogicznych, macierzyńskich itp. Mimo, że akcja była lokalna szybko znalazła naśladowców. Od 1931r. podobną działalność z inicjatywy Wandy Szuman podjął Warszawski Komitet Umieszczania Dzieci w Rodzinach. W 1933r. wznowił pracę Dom Wychowawczy im. ks.Baudouina a w 1934r. władze oficjalnie usankcjonowały tę formę opieki.

Odtąd rozpoczyna się trzeci etap rozwoju rodziny zastępczej, trwający do wybuchu II wojny światowej. Charakteryzuje go dynamiczny rozwój liczbowy ( w 1936r. było w Polsce 6175 rodzin zastępczych a już w 1938r. – 8447). W czasie okupacji tysiące sierot w sposób spontaniczny znajdowało opiekę wśród często obcych ludzi, natomiast wszelka działalność instytucji i organizacji została zakazana ( utrzymały się tylko Polski Czerwony Krzyż oraz Rada Główna Opiekuńcza).

Zakończenie wojny sprzyjało normalizacji życia społecznego i rozwojowi rodzin zastępczych. Pierwsze w powojennej Polsce zarządzenie dotyczące rodzin zastępczych wydano 15 maja 1946r. było to pismo ministra oświaty o umieszczaniu dzieci w rodzinach zastępczych.

Rok 1950 zapoczątkował jednak kryzys tej instytucji trwający do początku lat 70 – tych. W latach 1950 -55 nastąpiła centralizacja działalności opiekuńczo – wychowawczej, co bardzo niekorzystnie odbiło się na losach dzieci. Koniec lat 70 – tych to renesans rodzin zastępczych będący wynikiem krytyki wychowania zakładowego, nadmiernego zagęszczenia w placówkach opiekuńczo – wychowawczych. oraz wysokich kosztów utrzymania. Rodziny zastępcze stały się w tym momencie tanią alternatywą ( zwłaszcza, że pomoc ze strony państwa była znikoma). Dopiero uchwała Rady Ministrów z dn. 22 listopada 1971r., gwarantowała pomoc materialną dzieciom umieszczonym w rodzinach zastępczych do lat 18 ( w uzasadnionych przypadkach do lat 24). Ustalono kwotę pomocy na dziecko w rodzinie zastępczej na kwotę 750 zł miesięcznie oraz jednorazową zapomogę w wysokości 1500 zł. Ponadto uchwała przewidywała prawo do korzystania ze świadczeń służby zdrowia i usług socjalnych. W wyniku tych działań wzrosła liczba rodzin zastępczych. Kolejne akty prawne z lat 1974 i 1979 bardziej kompleksowo regulowały zarówno wymagania wobec rodzin jak i zasady udzielanej pomocy.

Lata osiemdziesiąte i dziewięćdziesiąte to ciągły rozwój tej instytucji, zarówno ilościowy (badania z 1992r, wykazały, że łączna liczba rodzin zastępczych wyniosła 30 113 dla 38 650 dzieci, podczas gdy było 289 Domów dziecka z liczbą 14 284 wychowanków), jak i jakościowy. Udoskonalają się poszczególne typy rodzin przede wszystkim terapeutyczne ( w roku 1988 było w Polsce 751 takich rodzin, które objęły swoją opieką 784 dzieci, w 1992 – 966 rodzin i 1021 dzieci).

Rodzina zastępcza stała się wreszcie formą docenioną aczkolwiek nie wolną od kontrowersji. Badacze tej instytucji podkreślają istnienie szeregu niekorzystnych rozbieżności między określonymi w przepisach normatywnych warunkami i zadaniami jakie winni spełniać i
realizować rodzice zastępczy, a społeczną praktyką.

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